# Accounts

This document describes the in-built accounts system of Injective.

# Pre-requisite Readings

# Injective Accounts

Injective defines its own custom Account type that uses Ethereum's ECDSA secp256k1 curve for keys. This satisfies the EIP84 (opens new window) for full BIP44 (opens new window) paths. The root HD path for Injective-based accounts is m/44'/60'/0'/0.

# Addresses and Public Keys

There are 3 main types of Addresses/PubKeys available by default on Injective:

  • Addresses and Keys for accounts, which identify users (e.g. the sender of a message). They are derived using the eth_secp256k1 curve.
  • Addresses and Keys for validator operators, which identify the operators of validators. They are derived using the eth_secp256k1 curve.
  • Addresses and Keys for consensus nodes, which identify the validator nodes participating in consensus. They are derived using the ed25519 curve.
Address bech32 Prefix Pubkey bech32 Prefix Curve Address byte length Pubkey byte length
Accounts inj injpub eth_secp256k1 20 33 (compressed)
Validator Operator injvaloper injvaloperpub eth_secp256k1 20 33 (compressed)
Consensus Nodes injvalcons injvalconspub ed25519 20 32

# Address formats for clients

EthAccounts can be represented in both Bech32 (opens new window) and hex format for Ethereum's Web3 tooling compatibility.

The Bech32 format is the default format for Cosmos-SDK queries and transactions through CLI and REST clients. The hex format on the other hand, is the Ethereum common.Address representation of a Cosmos sdk.AccAddress.

  • Address (Bech32): inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku
  • Address (EIP55 (opens new window) Hex): 0xAF79152AC5dF276D9A8e1E2E22822f9713474902
  • Compressed Public Key: {"@type":"/injective.crypto.v1beta1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"ApNNebT58zlZxO2yjHiRTJ7a7ufjIzeq5HhLrbmtg9Y/"}

You can query an account address using the Cosmos CLI or REST clients:

Copy # NOTE: the --output (-o) flag will define the output format in JSON or YAML (text) injectived q auth account $(injectived keys show <MYKEY> -a) -o text | '@type': /injective.types.v1beta1.EthAccount base_account: account_number: "3" address: inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku pub_key: null sequence: "0" code_hash: xdJGAYb3IzySfn2y3McDwOUAtlPKgic7e/rYBF2FpHA= Copy # GET /cosmos/auth/v1beta1/accounts/{address} curl -X GET "http://localhost:10337/cosmos/auth/v1beta1/accounts/inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku" -H "accept: application/json"

See the Swagger API (opens new window) reference for the full docs on the accounts API.

The Cosmos SDK Keyring output (i.e injectived keys) only supports addresses in Bech32 format.

# Deriving Injective Account from a private key/mnemonic

Let's see an example code snippet on how to derive Injective Account from a private key and/or a mnemonic phase:

Copy import { Wallet } from 'ethers' import { Address as EthereumUtilsAddress } from 'ethereumjs-util' const mnemonic = "indoor dish desk flag debris potato excuse depart ticket judge file exit" const privateKey = "afdfd9c3d2095ef696594f6cedcae59e72dcd697e2a7521b1578140422a4f890" const defaultDerivationPath = "m/44'/60'/0'/0/0" const defaultBech32Prefix = 'inj' const isPrivateKey: boolean = true /* just for the example */ const wallet = isPrivateKey ? Wallet.fromMnemonic(mnemonic, defaultDerivationPath) : new Wallet(privateKey) const ethereumAddress = wallet.address const addressBuffer = EthereumUtilsAddress.fromString(ethereumAddress.toString()).toBuffer() const injectiveAddress = bech32.encode(defaultBech32Prefix, bech32.toWords(addressBuffer))

Let's see an example code snipped on how to derive a public key from a private key:

Copy import secp256k1 from 'secp256k1' const privateKey = "afdfd9c3d2095ef696594f6cedcae59e72dcd697e2a7521b1578140422a4f890" const privateKeyHex = Buffer.from(privateKey.toString(), 'hex') const publicKeyByte = secp256k1.publicKeyCreate(privateKeyHex) const buf1 = Buffer.from([10]) const buf2 = Buffer.from([publicKeyByte.length]) const buf3 = Buffer.from(publicKeyByte) const publicKey = Buffer.concat([buf1, buf2, buf3]).toString('base64') const type = '/injective.crypto.v1beta1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey'