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This document describes the in-built accounts system of Injective.

Pre-requisite Readings

Injective Accounts

Injective defines its own custom Account type that uses Ethereum's ECDSA secp256k1 curve for keys. This satisfies the EIP84 for full BIP44 paths. The root HD path for Injective-based accounts is m/44'/60'/0'/0.

Addresses and Public Keys

There are 3 main types of Addresses/PubKeys available by default on Injective:

  • Addresses and Keys for accounts, which identify users (e.g. the sender of a message). They are derived using the eth_secp256k1 curve.
  • Addresses and Keys for validator operators, which identify the operators of validators. They are derived using the eth_secp256k1 curve.
  • Addresses and Keys for consensus nodes, which identify the validator nodes participating in consensus. They are derived using the ed25519 curve.
Address bech32 PrefixPubkey bech32 PrefixCurveAddress byte lengthPubkey byte length
Accountsinjinjpubeth_secp256k12033 (compressed)
Validator Operatorinjvaloperinjvaloperpubeth_secp256k12033 (compressed)
Consensus Nodesinjvalconsinjvalconspubed255192032

Address formats for clients

EthAccounts can be represented in both Bech32 and hex format for Ethereum's Web3 tooling compatibility.

The Bech32 format is the default format for Cosmos-SDK queries and transactions through CLI and REST clients. The hex format on the other hand, is the Ethereum common.Address representation of a Cosmos sdk.AccAddress.

  • Address (Bech32): inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku
  • Address (EIP55 Hex): 0xAF79152AC5dF276D9A8e1E2E22822f9713474902
  • Compressed Public Key: {"@type":"/injective.crypto.v1beta1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey","key":"ApNNebT58zlZxO2yjHiRTJ7a7ufjIzeq5HhLrbmtg9Y/"}

You can query an account address using the Cosmos CLI or REST clients:

# NOTE: the --output (-o) flag will define the output format in JSON or YAML (text)
injectived q auth account $(injectived keys show <MYKEY> -a) -o text
'@type': /injective.types.v1beta1.EthAccount
account_number: "3"
address: inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku
pub_key: null
sequence: "0"
code_hash: xdJGAYb3IzySfn2y3McDwOUAtlPKgic7e/rYBF2FpHA=
# GET /cosmos/auth/v1beta1/accounts/{address}
curl -X GET "http://localhost:10337/cosmos/auth/v1beta1/accounts/inj14au322k9munkmx5wrchz9q30juf5wjgz2cfqku" -H "accept: application/json"

See the Swagger API reference for the full docs on the accounts API.

::: tip The Cosmos SDK Keyring output (i.e injectived keys) only supports addresses in Bech32 format. :::

Deriving Injective Account from a private key/mnemonic

Let's see an example code snippet on how to derive Injective Account from a private key and/or a mnemonic phase:

import { Wallet } from 'ethers'
import { Address as EthereumUtilsAddress } from 'ethereumjs-util'

const mnemonic = "indoor dish desk flag debris potato excuse depart ticket judge file exit"
const privateKey = "afdfd9c3d2095ef696594f6cedcae59e72dcd697e2a7521b1578140422a4f890"
const defaultDerivationPath = "m/44'/60'/0'/0/0"
const defaultBech32Prefix = 'inj'
const isPrivateKey: boolean = true /* just for the example */

const wallet = isPrivateKey ? Wallet.fromMnemonic(mnemonic, defaultDerivationPath) : new Wallet(privateKey)
const ethereumAddress = wallet.address
const addressBuffer = EthereumUtilsAddress.fromString(ethereumAddress.toString()).toBuffer()
const injectiveAddress = bech32.encode(defaultBech32Prefix, bech32.toWords(addressBuffer))

Let's see an example code snipped on how to derive a public key from a private key:

import secp256k1 from 'secp256k1'

const privateKey = "afdfd9c3d2095ef696594f6cedcae59e72dcd697e2a7521b1578140422a4f890"
const privateKeyHex = Buffer.from(privateKey.toString(), 'hex')
const publicKeyByte = secp256k1.publicKeyCreate(privateKeyHex)

const buf1 = Buffer.from([10])
const buf2 = Buffer.from([publicKeyByte.length])
const buf3 = Buffer.from(publicKeyByte)

const publicKey = Buffer.concat([buf1, buf2, buf3]).toString('base64')
const type = '/injective.crypto.v1beta1.ethsecp256k1.PubKey'