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Parameters and base types

Parameters define the rules according to which votes are run. There can only be one active parameter set at any given time. If governance wants to change a parameter set, either to modify a value or add/remove a parameter field, a new parameter set has to be created and the previous one rendered inactive.







Parameters are stored in a global GlobalParams KVStore.

Additionally, we introduce some basic types:

type Vote byte

const (
VoteYes = 0x1
VoteNo = 0x2
VoteNoWithVeto = 0x3
VoteAbstain = 0x4

type ProposalType string

const (
ProposalTypePlainText = "Text"
ProposalTypeSoftwareUpgrade = "SoftwareUpgrade"

type ProposalStatus byte

const (
StatusNil ProposalStatus = 0x00
StatusDepositPeriod ProposalStatus = 0x01 // Proposal is submitted. Participants can deposit on it but not vote
StatusVotingPeriod ProposalStatus = 0x02 // MinDeposit is reached, participants can vote
StatusPassed ProposalStatus = 0x03 // Proposal passed and successfully executed
StatusRejected ProposalStatus = 0x04 // Proposal has been rejected
StatusFailed ProposalStatus = 0x05 // Proposal passed but failed execution




This type is used in a temp map when tallying

  type ValidatorGovInfo struct {
Minus sdk.Dec
Vote Vote


Proposal objects are used to account votes and generally track the proposal's state. They contain Content which denotes what this proposal is about, and other fields, which are the mutable state of the governance process.


type Content interface {
GetTitle() string
GetDescription() string
ProposalRoute() string
ProposalType() string
ValidateBasic() sdk.Error
String() string

The Content on a proposal is an interface which contains the information about the Proposal such as the tile, description, and any notable changes. Also, this Content type can by implemented by any module. The Content's ProposalRoute returns a string which must be used to route the Content's Handler in the governance keeper. This allows the governance keeper to execute proposal logic implemented by any module. If a proposal passes, the handler is executed. Only if the handler is successful does the state get persisted and the proposal finally passes. Otherwise, the proposal is rejected.

type Handler func(ctx sdk.Context, content Content) sdk.Error

The Handler is responsible for actually executing the proposal and processing any state changes specified by the proposal. It is executed only if a proposal passes during EndBlock.

We also mention a method to update the tally for a given proposal:

  func (proposal Proposal) updateTally(vote byte, amount sdk.Dec)


Stores are KVStores in the multi-store. The key to find the store is the first parameter in the list`

We will use one KVStore Governance to store two mappings:

  • A mapping from proposalID|'proposal' to Proposal.
  • A mapping from proposalID|'addresses'|address to Vote. This mapping allows us to query all addresses that voted on the proposal along with their vote by doing a range query on proposalID:addresses.

For pseudocode purposes, here are the two function we will use to read or write in stores:

  • load(StoreKey, Key): Retrieve item stored at key Key in store found at key StoreKey in the multistore
  • store(StoreKey, Key, value): Write value Value at key Key in store found at key StoreKey in the multistore

Proposal Processing Queue


  • ProposalProcessingQueue: A queue queue[proposalID] containing all the ProposalIDs of proposals that reached MinDeposit. During each EndBlock, all the proposals that have reached the end of their voting period are processed. To process a finished proposal, the application tallies the votes, computes the votes of each validator and checks if every validator in the validator set has voted. If the proposal is accepted, deposits are refunded. Finally, the proposal content Handler is executed.

And the pseudocode for the ProposalProcessingQueue:

  in EndBlock do

for finishedProposalID in GetAllFinishedProposalIDs(block.Time)
proposal = load(Governance, <proposalID|'proposal'>) // proposal is a const key

validators = Keeper.getAllValidators()
tmpValMap := map(sdk.AccAddress)ValidatorGovInfo

// Initiate mapping at 0. This is the amount of shares of the validator's vote that will be overridden by their delegator's votes
for each validator in validators
tmpValMap(validator.OperatorAddr).Minus = 0

// Tally
voterIterator = rangeQuery(Governance, <proposalID|'addresses'>) //return all the addresses that voted on the proposal
for each (voterAddress, vote) in voterIterator
delegations = stakingKeeper.getDelegations(voterAddress) // get all delegations for current voter

for each delegation in delegations
// make sure delegation.Shares does NOT include shares being unbonded
tmpValMap(delegation.ValidatorAddr).Minus += delegation.Shares
proposal.updateTally(vote, delegation.Shares)

_, isVal = stakingKeeper.getValidator(voterAddress)
if (isVal)
tmpValMap(voterAddress).Vote = vote

tallyingParam = load(GlobalParams, 'TallyingParam')

// Update tally if validator voted they voted
for each validator in validators
if tmpValMap(validator).HasVoted
proposal.updateTally(tmpValMap(validator).Vote, (validator.TotalShares - tmpValMap(validator).Minus))

// Check if proposal is accepted or rejected
totalNonAbstain := proposal.YesVotes + proposal.NoVotes + proposal.NoWithVetoVotes
if (proposal.Votes.YesVotes/totalNonAbstain > tallyingParam.Threshold AND proposal.Votes.NoWithVetoVotes/totalNonAbstain < tallyingParam.Veto)
// proposal was accepted at the end of the voting period
// refund deposits (non-voters already punished)
for each (amount, depositor) in proposal.Deposits
depositor.AtomBalance += amount

stateWriter, err := proposal.Handler()
if err != nil
// proposal passed but failed during state execution
proposal.CurrentStatus = ProposalStatusFailed
// proposal pass and state is persisted
proposal.CurrentStatus = ProposalStatusAccepted
// proposal was rejected
proposal.CurrentStatus = ProposalStatusRejected

store(Governance, <proposalID|'proposal'>, proposal)